Competency Mapping is a process and not a product. To perform a job, an individual does not require a single competency but a combination of several competencies. Two job roles may require the same competency but the degree or intensity may vary. Therefore, in the process of competency mapping, those competencies that are imperative to perform a task or job role are identified.
These identified competencies may be core competencies which are required by all employees in the organization or workplace competencies which are unique to a job role. Further, the identified competencies can be in terms of functional and technical skills or in terms of specific behaviors. Depending on what competencies are identified, matching is done with the respective competencies of the potential candidate or existing employee. This process of matching the competencies is what we refer to as competency mapping.
The mapping can be either job role specific or at an organizational level. The purpose is to evaluate the degree of “fit” of the candidate or employee to the job role or organization.